Prof. Raffaele Bugiardini is a clinical cardiologist and Full Professor of Cardiology at the University of Bologna, Italy. His research mainly focuses on pathophysiological and prognostic insights of sex and gender differences of ischemic heart disease, risk stratification, non-obstructive coronary artery disease, coronary spasm, and coronary microcirculation. He has established clinical research programmes involving acute coronary syndromes evaluation, primary and secondary prevention, therapy and prognosis. Prof. Raffaele Bugiardini is a Fellow of European Society of Cardiology. Between 2010 and 2012 he served on the Board of the ESC, is a past-chair of the Working Group on Coronary Pathophysiology and Microcirculation of the ESC, and a past-chair of the Congress of the Italian Society of Cardiology. He is author or co-authors of numerous scientific publications, and book chapters and has received several awards and recognitions.