In order to bring you the best possible user experience, this site uses Javascript. If you are seeing this message, it is likely that the Javascript option in your browser is disabled. For optimal viewing of this site, please ensure that Javascript is enabled for your browser.

The free consultation period for this content is over.

It is now only available year-round to HFA Silver & Gold Members, Fellows of the ESC and Young combined Members

The development of e-health tools to support dietary sodium assessment, behavioural modification and shared decision making in clinical practice

Session Poster Session 3

Speaker Assistant Professor Joanne Arcand

Congress : Heart Failure 2019

  • Topic : cardiovascular nursing and allied professions
  • Sub-topic : Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions - Other
  • Session type : Poster Session
  • FP Number : P1839

Authors : J Arcand (Oshawa,CA), M Ahmed (Toronto,CA)

J Arcand1 , M Ahmed2 , 1University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences - Oshawa - Canada , 2University of Toronto, Department of Nutritional Sciences - Toronto - Canada ,


Background: Dietary sodium reduction is a recommended therapy for heart failure. However, assessing dietary sodium intake in the clinical setting is challenging. Sodium assessment methods include 24-hour urine collections and self-reported methods such as food recalls and records. These methods are time-consuming, burdensome and do not provide individualized or timely feedback, thereby potentially impeding effective delivery of dietary advice from health care providers and patient-action in behaviour change or adherence.

Purpose: We developed and validated two dietary sodium screening tools: Sodium Calculator (SC) and Sodium Calculator Plus (SCP). The purpose of this abstract is to report the results of iterative user testing during the development phase, and content and face validity by experts and users.

Methods: The SC and SCP are web-based food-frequency questionnaires developed from national survey on foods contributing the most sodium to the Canadian diet. The SCP asks standard portion sizes consumed. To allow for rapid calculations, the SC does not ask about portion size but includes average portion sizes consumed by Canadians in its algorithm. To calculate the amount and sources of sodium in the user’s diet, the sodium content of foods and beverages available in the Food Label Information Program 2013/2017 and the Canadian Nutrient File 2010/2015 were used. Nutrition experts conducted face and content validity. University students provided feedback on the SC and SCP in an open-ended survey as part of the iterative testing process.

Results: The SC contains 26 questions on intake frequency and took 5 minutes to complete. The more detailed SCP contains 72 questions and took 10-15 minutes to complete. Nutrition experts made several suggestions about wording, foods included and report formats. They suggested the use of graphs/visual displays to illustrate sodium intake and the inclusion of risk estimates for health impacts of sodium intake. Users (n=118) liked the reported grouping of foods, options for frequency of consumption, concise instructions, and personalized feedback on sodium intakes and felt that SC and SCP both increased awareness of sodium consumption and reading of food labels. However, users indicated some improvements such as clarification of portion sizes, food form (e.g. canned/dry), use of color and larger font and additional examples related to culturally-based diet. These data were used to modify the web-based calculators, as part of the iterative development process.

Conclusion: The SC and SCP provide rapid, detailed, personalized information on dietary sodium. The SC is a rapid screener that is useful in a busy clinical setting. The SCP can provide more detailed assessments and track longitudinal dietary changes. Both tools may be integrated into e-health platforms to support behaviour change and improved health outcomes.

Based on your interests

Members get more

Join now
  • 1ESC Professional Members – access all resources from ESC Congress and ESC Asia with APSC & AFC
  • 2ESC Association Members (Ivory, Silver, Gold) – access your Association’s congress resources
  • 3Under 40 or in training - with a Combined Membership, access resources from all congresses
Join now

Our sponsors

ESC 365 is supported by Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim and Lilly Alliance, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance, Novartis Pharma AG and Vifor Pharma in the form of educational grants. The sponsors were not involved in the development of this platform and had no influence on its content.

logo esc

Our mission: To reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease

Who we are