Purpose: Diabetes, a frequent comorbidity in patients with heart failure, influences the clinical characteristics in patients hospitalized for chronic heart failure. The objective of the study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with chronic heart failure and diabetes, hospitalized in the internal medicine clinic of a university emergency hospital over a period of 6 months, as compared with those without diabetes.
Methods: A total of 412 patients with chronic heart failure were included. Clinical and laboratory variables, along with the treatment, were retrospectively reviewed from the hospital database.
Results: From the 412 patients hospitalized with chronic heart failure, 67 were diabetics (16.26%). The main comorbidities in the group of patients with heart failure and diabetes were: 48 patients had arterial hypertension (71.64%), 43 dyslipidemia (64.17%), 38 ischemic heart disease (56.71%), 33 valvular diseases (49.25%), 21 chronic kidney disease (31.34%), 20 atrial fibrillation (29.85%), 18 dilatative cardiomyopathy (26.86%), 13 pulmonary hypertension (19.40%). Heart failure patients with diabetes were younger (mean age 65 ± 2 y vs 71 ± 3 y) and had a higher prevalence of ischemic etiology and atrial fibrillation comparing with heart failure patients without diabetes. Also, in-hospital mortality and length of stay (8.2 vs 6.7 days) were higher in diabetics. Sex distribution of patients with heart failure and diabetes was: 31 women (46.26%) and 36 men (53.73%). 86.56% of heart failure patients with diabetes were obese; only 32.75% of those without diabetes were obese. All diabetic patients were treated with oral antidiabetics; 14 were treated with insulin.
Conclusions: Heart failure patients with diabetes had higher short-term mortality and duration of hospitalization compared with patients without diabetes; also, they were younger than non-diabetic patients. Diabetic patients with heart failure had greater body mass index than heart failure patients without diabetes and were more likely to have more advanced renal disease.