Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiometabolic Syndrome (CardMetS) doubles the risk of CVD. Recently published studies indicate, that the increased intake of carbohydrates may be associated with the risk of CVD events.
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the consumption of macronutrients and development of CardMetS and CVD events in 6-years observation.
Poland is one of the 21 countries enrolled in global Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology Study (PURE). Analyzed study population consisted of 943 participants aged between 30 and 80 years. Some participants have been removed from analysis due to withdrawal and lack of data in follow-up. Participants with history of CVD and CardMetS in the baseline were excluded from the analysis. Participants completed validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at the baseline. Recorded CVD events included myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and angina (symptomatic coronary disease). The CardMetS was defined as having at least three of the criteria: abdominal obesity (waist circumference =94 cm for men and =80 cm for women), high BP (SBP/DBP =130/85 mmHg or antihypertensive medication), hypertriglyceridemia (=150 mg/dL), low HDL (<40 mg/dL for men or <50mg/dL for women) and hyperglycaemia (fasting blood glucose =100 mg/dL or antidiabetic medication). The CVD events and CardMetS were observed within 6 years following the baseline visit. In the analysis the multivariate logistic regression approach was chosen to exclude the risk of bias of other risk factors.
There was no statistically significant association between consumption of total protein, carbohydrates and fat and CVD events (p=0,47; p=0,17; p=0,22 respectively). There was statistically significant association between consumption of sugars and CVD events (OR=1,008; 95%CI=1,0-1,015; p=0,03). The results of multivariate logistic regression including other risk factors are presented in Table 1.
The consumption of sugars, but not overall carbohydrates, fats and protein was associated with CVD events independently from smoking status, BMI or sex.