Background: Smoking is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Purpose: To assess the epidemiology of arterial hypertension (AH) and the risk factors associated with it among Tyumen pupils’ population for designing of main preventive measures.
Methods: The cross-sectional epidemiology study of pupils’ population in one of administrative districts in Tumen selected as per the random was performed. 2640 pupils (1308 boys and 1332 girls) aged 7-17 with response 87.7 % were studied during the cardiology screening. Attitude to smoking was estimated by anonymous questionnaire according to the standard form: smokers were considered pupils who smoked at least one cigarette per week. AH was assessed according to the WHO guidelines using criteria of high systolic and diastolic BP for children: at age 7-9 years >120/70 mmHg; at age 10-12 years >120/75 mmHg; at age 13-14 years >130/ 80 mmHg; at age 15-17 years ≥135/ 85 mmHg. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using «Statistika 6.0» programme including correlation analysis, univariate regression analysis (calculating Student’s t-test, F-Fisher’s exact test, Х2-Pearson’s chi-square test, Cramér's V test) where statistically significant differences were as р<0.05.
Results: The study showed the growth of active smokers among pupils of every following age group: at boys aged 7-17 years increased from 1.2% to 23.7% vs girls aged 13–17 years – from 3.3% to 10.0%. More than 52 % of pupils are passive smokers. Higher prevalence of increased BP among smoking pupils as compared to non-smoking (13.5% vs 11.6%; for boys 14.3% and 13.6% vs 11.9% and 9.6% for girls) was detected. Univariate regression analysis established the contingency between elevated diastolic BP and active smoking as follows: calculated Х2-Pearson criterion =115.2261, df=36, achieved significance value for degrees-of-freedom p<0.001; Spearman's degree of dependence R=0.22, t=2.27 (p=0.025). The intensity of the relationship between diastolic BP and smoking according to Cramér's V was detected as 0.767. Moreover, weak feedback between elevated systolic BP and passive smoking was found.
Conclusion: Thus, the cross-sectional epidemiology study of Tyumen pupils’ population showed the association between AH level and active and passive smoking. This fact requires design and implementation of targeted and effective preventive measures.