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Self-perception of salt consumption and its intake among adults living in three urban units in Praia, Cape-Verde

Session Poster Session III - Friday 08:30 - 12:30

Speaker Zelia Santos

Event : ESC Preventive Cardiology (Formerly EuroPrevent) 2015

  • Topic : preventive cardiology
  • Sub-topic : Nutrition, Malnutrition and Heart Disease
  • Session type : Poster Session

Authors : D Alves (Lisbon,PT), Z Santos (Lisbon,PT), M Amado (Lisbon,PT), R Simoes (Lisbon,PT), I Craveiro (Lisbon,PT), J Cabral (Lisbon,PT), L Lapao (Lisbon,PT), A Delgado (Praia,CV), A Correia (Praia,CV), L Goncalves (Lisbon,PT)

D Alves1 , Z Santos1 , M Amado2 , R Simoes1 , I Craveiro1 , J Cabral1 , L Lapao1 , A Delgado3 , A Correia4 , L Goncalves1 , 1Institute for Hygiene and Topical Medicine - Lisbon - Portugal , 2Faculty of Science and Technology UNL - Lisbon - Portugal , 3Directorate-General of Health - Cape-Verde - Praia - Cape Verde , 4National Center for Health Development - Cape-Verde - Praia - Cape Verde ,


Purpose: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in Cape-Verde (35% of deaths by noncommunicable diseases, estimated to account for 69% of total deaths) [WHO 2014].  It was estimated that 47.7% of men and 38.4% of women over 25 years suffer from Hypertension [WHO 2013]. High levels of dietary sodium (consumed as common salt) are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health [Dariush et al. 2014]. Kerry at al. (2005) stated that in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in less urbanized settings, the main source of dietary sodium is from salt added to food for preservation, taste and in the cooking process. The guideline for salt daily consumption is up to 5000mg/day (equivalent to 2000mg/day of sodium) [WHO 2012]. This study aimed to analyze self-perception of salt consumption and sodium daily intake.
Methods: A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was applied, as part of the UPHI-Stat questionnaire, to a random sample of 1912 participants from three urban units in Praia (Formal, Informal and Transition) to assess self-perception of salt consumption in diet. A 24-hour dietary recall was applied, in order to assess sodium daily intake, to 599 participants.
Results: According to FFQ, in an ordinal scale - none, low, medium and high - 44.1% and 50.9% of the sample referred low and medium salt consumption, respectively. The participants from Formal unit referred a higher percentage of low and a lower percentage of medium consumption. The median sodium daily intake for the sub-sample was 3156mg/day [IQR: 1901-4948], with Transition unit presenting a lower value (2451mg/day [IQR: 1599-4124]) than the other two units (p<0.001). Therefore, 73.7% of this sub-sample did not comply with the recommendation. Moreover, 3.7% presented a sodium daily intake higher than 10000mg/day (5.1% in Informal unit). The non-compliance with the recommendation was 83.3% and 61.8% in Informal and Transition units (p<0.001) and, by sex, 79.9% and 70.4% on men and women, respectively (p=0.024). Analyzing the quantity of sodium intake for each category of self-perception of salt consumption, it was found that at least 70% of participants presented sodium daily intake above the recommendation, for all categories.
Conclusions: In the study urban units, sodium daily intake does not fit nutritional and dietary recommendations, even though their self-perception of salt consumption by FFQ was mainly referred as low or medium consumption. This demonstrates the emerging need for specific content development within the public health and community nutrition for the development of food skills.

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