Objective: To characterize the dietary intake of subjects aged 40 to 80 years according to diagnosis of dyslipidemia and presence of a hypolipidemic diet.
Methods: cross-sectional study conducted between 2009 and 2012 on 4289 participants (2274 women) living in Lausanne, Switzerland, of which 1370 (32%) reported a diagnosis of dyslipidemia, of which 242 (18%) reported a hypolipidemic diet. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire.
Results: compared to participants with dyslipidemia not on a diet, those on a diet consumed more fruits (mean±standard deviation: 2.5±1.9 vs. 1.9±1.7 portions/ day), vegetables (1.6±1.0 vs. 1.4±0.9 portions/day) and fish (1.9±1.4 vs. 1.6±1.1 portions/week) and less meat (4.5±2.7 vs. 5.2±2.9 portions/week). They also had a higher intake of total carbohydrates (50.1±8.6 vs. 47.1±8.3 % total energy intake), monounsaturated (39.9±5.4 vs. 39.4±4.3 % total fat) and polyunsaturated (15.6±4.3 vs. 14.2±4.1 % total fat) fatty acids and a lower intake of total fat (34.2±7.4 vs. 36.6±7.0 % total energy intake) and saturated fatty acids (35.1±6.2 vs. 37.8±5.7 % total fat). Finally, participants with dyslipidemia on a diet complied to more nutritional recommendations (2.1±1.0 vs. 1.7±0.9) than participants with dyslipidemia but not on a diet. Compared to non-dyslipidemic participants, participants with dyslipidemia on a diet had a higher consumption of fruits, fish and total carbohydrates, mono and polyunsaturated fats, and a lower consumption of total and saturated fats.
Conclusion: when implemented, hypolipidemic diets lead to a healthier dietary intake than in the general population.