Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of temporal variability of T-wave spatial heterogeneity in SCD in patients with CAD.
Methods: The Innovation to reduce Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes at the Intersection (ARTEMIS) study population consisted of 1,946 patients with angiographically verified CAD. T-wave morphology dispersion (TMD), which estimates the average angle between all reconstruction vector pairs in T-wave loop based on leads I-II and V2-V6, was analysed on beat-to-beat basis from 10 minutes period of the baseline electrocardiographic recording in 1,678 study subjects. The temporal variability of TMD was evaluated by standard deviation of TMD (TMD-SD).
Results: After on average of 7.4±2.0 years of follow-up, a total of 47 of the 1,678 study subjects (2.8%) had experienced SCD or were resuscitated from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). TMD-SD was significantly higher in patients who had experienced SCD/SCA compared with those who remained alive (3.64±2.57 vs. 2.65±2.54, p<0.01, respectively), but did not differ significantly between the patients who had experienced non-sudden cardiac death (n=40, 2.4%) and those who remained alive (2.98±2.43 vs. 2.67±2.55, p=0.45, respectively) or between the patients who succumbed to non-cardiac death (n=88, 5,2%) and those who stayed alive (2.74±2.44 vs. 2.67±2.55, p=0.81). After adjustments with relevant clinical risk indicators of SCD/SCA, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, left bundle branch block and Canadian Cardiac Society class, TMD-SD still predicted SCD/SCA (HR 1.113, 95% CIs 1.028-1.206, p<0.01). The discrimination and reclassification accuracy increased significantly (p=0.02, p=0.033) and the C-index increased from 0.733 to 0.741 when TMD-SD was added to the clinical risk model of SCD/SCA. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves show proportional probabilities of event-free survival for different modes of death for patients classified according to the optimised TMD-SD cut-off point (Figure).
Conclusions: Temporal variability of electrocardiographic spatial heterogeneity of repolarisation represented by TMD-SD independently predicts long-term risk of SCD/SCA in patients with CAD.