Purpose: We investigated the long-term prognostic impact of computed tomography (CT)-determined sarcopenia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: Total 475 CAD patients those who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and performed CT scan within 30 days of PCI were enrolled. The cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle at the first lumbar vertebra (L1) level was measured. Sarcopenia was defined as L1 skeletal muscle index of less than 34.60 cm²/m² for men and of less than 25.90 cm²/m² for women. Primary outcome was 3-year all-cause mortality and secondary outcome was 3-year major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), a composite of all-cause mortality, any myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization.
Results: Sarcopenia was present in 214 (45.1%) of 475 patients. The incidence of 3-year all-cause mortality and MACE was significantly higher in patients with sarcopenia than in those without sarcopenia (17.7% vs. 5.7%, p<0.001; and 35.0% vs. 11.2%, p<0.001, respectively). In the fully adjusted multivariable analysis, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of higher risk of 3-year all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35 to 6.58, p=0.007) and MACE (OR: 4.39; 95% CI: 2.49 to 7.73, p<0.001). The results were consistent after propensity-score matched analysis with 100 pairs of study population (C-statistics = 0.868).
Conclusion: Sarcopenia is a useful predictor of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with CAD undergoing PCI. CT-determined sarcopenia may further aid in risk stratification and decision-making for patients with established ASCVD.