Objective: To assess the detection frequency of masked hypertension (MAH), its clinical features and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects with MAH.
Material and methods: A full-design screening study included 512 young subjects aged 19–30 y.o. with a comparable social status. The following groups were formed: a group of “normotensive” ones included 422 subjects (82.4%) with mean age of 21 (19; 25) y.o.; “MHT” group included 90 subjects (17.6%) and 8% of them were “MHT women” with mean age of 21 (19.5; 25) y.o.; and 9.6% – “MHT men” with the mean age of 21 (19.5; 22) y.o. Study participants were performed a complex of clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination methods to identify cardiovascular disease risk factors, target lesions, as well as 30-second breath hold test with the following 24-hours blood pressure monitoring to verify the MHT diagnosis.
Results: The values of body mass index, waist and hip circumference were significantly higher (p<0.005) in MHT men and women as compared to normotensive ones. In MHT men the level of “office” blood pressure (BP) tended to increased “office” systolic BP to 130 (128; 135) mmHg as compared to women with MHT – systolic BP – up to 124 (120; 130) mmHg, and in “normotensive ones” – to 110 (100; 120) mmHg. Cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking and dyslipidemia were observed in MHT men 6 times and family history - 1.5 times more often than in MHT women. Physical activity level in MHT subjects was 2 times lower compared to “normotensive” ones, and 1.5 and more times lower in MHT women as compared to MHT men. Men with MHT salted precooked meal (57%) and ate sausages (61%) more often than normotensive ones (17.9 and 39%, respectively), more often consumed alcohol in higher doses than women with MHT and normotensive subjects.
Conclusion: MHT was detected among young men and women in 9.6% and 8%, respectively. MHT subjects more likely developed behavioral risk factors in the form of nutrition errors, low physical activity, smoking, as compared to “normotensive” ones. Young men with MHT frequently identified cardiovascular disease risk factors compared to young women with MHT –family history of cardiovascular diseases, smoking and dyslipidemia, as well as lower physical activity prevailed.